Summary: A new study suggests that sharing positive feelings with others may ease loneliness-based negativity, which can contribute to psychological issues and physical health problems.
Researchers at the University of Nebraska found that individuals who regularly share positive emotional experiences with friends and family experienced a decreased correlation between loneliness and negative interpretations of ambiguous stimuli, which can lead to poor psychological and physical outcomes.
- Loneliness can lead to negative psychological and physical outcomes, and the COVID-19 pandemic has heightened these effects.
- A study by researchers at the University of Nebraska found that social connectedness and interpersonal emotion regulation can buffer against the negative effects of loneliness.
- The study also found that regularly sharing positive emotional experiences with friends and family can mitigate the link between loneliness and negative interpretations of stimuli, potentially curbing the downsides of loneliness.
Source: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Even in the best of times, loneliness can contribute to psychological issues—depression, anxiety—and physical health problems whose effects on mortality rank with smoking 10-plus cigarettes a day. In the worst, like the onset of the isolating COVID-19 pandemic, that loneliness and its downstream effects can extract an even greater toll.
Multiple factors have been proposed to help buffer against the potential damage dealt by loneliness. Among them is social connectedness: a person’s sense of belonging and closeness both to their interpersonal network and society at large.
Another, called interpersonal emotion regulation, describes how often and how effectively a person uses their social connections to help maintain or improve their emotional state.
Nebraska’s Maital Neta and doctoral alumnus Nick Harp wondered how those two factors, separately or combined, might have influenced the magnitude of loneliness and its effects early in COVID-19. So the duo conducted a study involving 565 participants across three timepoints: spring 2020, fall 2020 and spring 2021.
The participants took surveys that assessed their loneliness, social connectedness and interpersonal emotion regulation, with the latter asking about their sharing of positive and negative feelings.
To gauge whether loneliness actually corresponded with negativity, the researchers also had participants look at ambiguous faces, scenes and words, then make snap judgments about whether the stimuli were positive or negative. (Neta’s earlier work helped establish the method as a valid, more objective means of gauging people’s social-emotional outlooks.)
Multiple factors have been proposed to help buffer against the potential damage dealt by loneliness. Credit: Neuroscience News
As expected, participants expressing greater feelings of loneliness tended to interpret the ambiguous stimuli more negatively, hinting that negativity could be facilitating the poor psychological and physical outcomes attributed to loneliness.
The link between loneliness and negativity was somewhat weaker among those who reported average to high social connectedness in general. But it dwindled even further among participants who said they regularly shared positive (but not negative) emotional experiences with friends and family—to the point that loneliness did not correlate with negative interpretations at all, even in the earliest stage of the pandemic.
Future research could help confirm whether loneliness was actually driving the increase in negativity—and positive sharing driving the decrease—that Neta and Harp observed in their study.
If so, interventions that encourage sharing of positive emotional experiences might prove more effective than conventional approaches when it comes to curbing the downsides of loneliness, the researchers said.
Tendency to share positive emotions buffers loneliness-related negativity in the context of shared adversity
Loneliness is associated with adverse outcomes, and the COVID-19 pandemic threatened to increase loneliness. How loneliness-related outcomes unfold, though, varies across individuals.
Individuals’ sense of social connectedness and engagement with others to regulate emotional experiences (interpersonal emotion regulation; IER) may modulate loneliness-related outcomes. Individuals failing to maintain social connectedness and/or regulate emotions may be at heightened risk.
We assessed how loneliness, social connectedness, and IER related to valence bias, a tendency to categorize ambiguity as more positive or negative. Loneliness was associated with a more negative valence bias among individuals reporting above average social connectedness but who shared positive emotion less often (z = -3.19, p =.001).
These findings suggest that sharing positive emotional experiences may buffer loneliness-related outcomes during shared adverse experiences.